INDIAN GEOGRAPHY - LOCATION



Coastal States of India
There are nine coastal states in India. They are:
On the East- West Bengal, Orissa, Andhra Pradesh and Tamil Nadu.
On the West- Kerala, Karnataka, Goa, Maharashtra and Gujarat.

McMohan Line
To the east of Bhutan, the crest of Great Himalayas acts as the dividing line between India and Chinese realms. The dividing line between India and China in the North-east is called McMohan Line.

Name ‘India’
The name “India” is derived from the great river ‘Sindhu’ or ‘Indus’ located in the North-west part of the country.The people living along this river were recognized as “Indoi” by the Greeks. Later this region was referred to as “India” by the Britishers. India was also known as “Bharath” as it was ruled by the ruler ‘Bharatha’ in the ancient times.
 
Geometrical Location of India
India lies between 8°4’ and 37°6’ North latitudes, and 68°7’ to 98°25’ East longitudes. India has thirty degrees (30°) of latitudinal extent from North to south and the same amount of longitudinal extent from East to West. India occupies seventh place in area among the countries of the world.

Countries that Frontiers with India
The countries sharing the frontiers with India are Pakistan, Afghanistan, China, Nepal, Bhutan, Myanmar, and Bangladesh. Radcliff line is the demarcating line between India and Pakistan. Mac Mohan line is the demarcating line between India and China. India’s neighbour across ocean waters is Sri Lanka. Gulf of Mannar and Palk Strait separate India and Sri Lanka.
 
Extreme Places on Frontiers
The extreme places of our country are as follows:
1.     North: The snow capped Himalayas.
2.     South: The hot and sunny Kanyakumari
3.     West: The salty Marshes or the Rann of Kutch.
4.     East: Virgin forests and untrampled hills.

States that border with Pakistan, China, Bangladesh and Myanmar
The states which have common Frontiers with Pakistan, China, Bangladesh and Myanmar are as follows:
 
1.     Pakistan: Gujarat, Rajasthan, Punjab and Jammu and Kashmir.
2.     China: Jammu and Kashmir, Himachal Pradesh and Uttar Pradesh.
3.     Bangladesh: West Bengal, Asom, Meghalaya, Tripura, and Mizoram.
4.     Myanmar: Arunachal Pradesh, Nagaland, Manipur and Mizoram.

Sub-continent
Though India is a country it is often called a sub continent. Definition of Sub-continent: A country with great geographical extent, huge population, diversified geographical and socio- cultural features is called a sub continent.
 
Reasons for calling India as a Sub-continent: 
  • Large Area: India has a large area of 3.28 million square kilometers, taking seventh place in the world.
  • Large Population: India has a population of 102.7 crore according to 2001 census, attaining second place in the world.  
  • Diversified Physiographic Divisions: India has diversified physiographic conditions with a variety of land forms like the Himalayas, the Indo-Gangetic plains, plateaus and coastal plains etc.
  •  Climate: India has a distinctive monsoon type of climate. Extremes in climatic conditions like temperature, rainfall, sunshine, humidity etc can be observed. 
  • Soils: A variety of soils like Alluvial, Black, Red, Laterite etc are found.
  •  Religions: The religions like Hinduism, Islam, Christianity, Buddhism, Jainism and Sikhism are being practiced.
  •  Land of Diversity: It is a land of diversity having varied modes of living, culture etc. There is Aryan culture in North India and Dravidian culture in South India. 
  •  Tropic of Cancer: the tropic of cancer runs half-way through the country. The southern half of the country lies within the tropics and experiences tropical climate. 
Thus, India can be called a subcontinent. Unity in diversity is the most distinctive feature of India. Island Groups of India and their Origin and Distribution. India has a number of Islands. In all India has 247 Islands of which 223 lie in the Bay of Bengal and the rest in Arabian Sea.

Indian Islands
The Indian Islands may be divided into four broad groups namely:
1.     The Andaman Group
2.     The Nicobar Group
3.     The Lakshadweep Group
4.     Other Islands


The Andaman Group: The Andaman Islands are located between 10° to 14° N latitudes. These Islands are volcanic origin. There are as many as 200 Islands in the Andaman group. They cover a total area of 6408 sq. km. 

The Nicobar group: There are about 19 Islands in the Nicobar group. They are located between 6°30’ to 9°30’ N latitudes. They cover an area of 1841 sq. km. The Greater Nicobar is the largest island in this group. It covers an area of 862 sq. km. The important Islands in this group are little Nicobar, Katchall, Trinkat etc. 

The Lakshadweep group: These Islands lie in the Arabian Sea. They are situated between 8°N to 11°N latitudes. They cover an area of 32 sq.km. They are of coral origin. 

Other Islands: In addition to the above, there are also other Islands like the Minicoy and the Pamban Islands. The Minicoy Island lies in the Eight degree channel with an area of 4.5 sq.km. The Pamban Island located between India and Sri Lanka has a rocky surface.