Imp ACTs of India


IMPORTANT ACTS in INDIA




Regulating Act, 1773.
This Act is issued for the first time by British Parliament to regulate the affairs of the East India Company.
1.     It centralized the administration of the company’s territories in India.
2.     Governor of Bengal was made Governor General of Bengal and a Council of 4 members was established for Bengal.
3.     Bombay and Madras Presidencies were subordinated to Bengal Presidency.
4.     Supreme Court was set up at Calcutta.
5.     Company’s servants were forbidden from accepting bribes or doing private trade.

Amendment Act, 1781
It settled the questions of jurisdiction of the Supreme Court.
Pitt’s India Act, 1784
1.     It transformed the Indian affairs of the Company into the hands of the British Crown.
2.     Dual System of Governance was abolished.
3.     Board of Control with 6 Commissioners was constituted to control Civil, Military and Revenue affairs of India.
4.     Court of Directors had to comply with the orders of directions of the Board.
5.     Strength of Governor-General Council reduced to 3….and Control of Governor-General-in-Council was enlarged effectively.

Act of 1786
1.     Governor-General became the Commander-in-Chief of Indian Forces. 
Charter Act, 1793
1.     East India Company’s monopoly trade was extended to 20 years.
2.     Expenses and Salaries of the Board of Control were to be charged from Indian Revenue.

Charter Act, 1813
1.     East India Company’s trade was prohibited in India except in Tea and Opium trade with China.
2.     It was allowed All Englishmen  to trade with India with some restrictions. Rules and Procedures were made for the use of Indian Revenue. A Sum of Rs.1 Lakh was earmarked annually for education.

Charter Act, 1833
1.     Governor General of Bengal became the Governor General of India. East India Company was closed completely. Company’s trade with India and China was completely collapsed.
2.     The fourth(4) member (Law Member) was added to Council of Governor-General.
3.     Government Service was thrown open to all the Indians. All the laws made by Governor-General-in Council came to be known as Acts rather than the regulations.
4.     Slavery was abolished.

Charter Act, 1853
1.     For the first time, a separate Legislature was set up with 12 members in the Council.
2.     Law member was made a full member of the Executive Council of the Governor General. Later, 6 additional members were added for purpose.
3.     Recruitment of Civil Services was established based on open annual competitive examination.

Govt. of India Act, 1858
1.     Dual Government System was ended both at Board of Control and Court of Directors. Secretary of State for India was appointed with 15 member council to be exercised by the power of Crown. Secretary of State for India was to be a member of British Cabinet.
2.     This Secretary is governed through the Governor General. Governor General of India to be called as Viceroy.
3.     A unitary and highly centralized administrative structure was created.

Indian Councils Act, 1861
1.     Association of Indians policy was started. Portfolio System was introduced. The foundation of Indian Legislature was laid.
2.     Legislative powers of the Presidency Governments were abolished in 1853.Viceroy could issue ordinances in case of emergency.

Indian Councils Act, 1892
1.     Non-official members of the Indian Legislative Council were nominated by the Bengal Chamber of Commerce.
2.     Non official member of the Provincial Council were to be nominated by certain local bodies like universities, district boards, municipalities, etc.
3.     Councils were given the power to discuss budget and to question the Executive.

Indian Councils Act, 1909
(Morley-Minto Reforms Act)
1.     It introduced for the first time to conduct elections to the Legislative Councils.
2.     In Provincial Legislative Councils,  non-official members were to be in majority.
3.     This act also introduced a separate electorates for Muslims.

Govt of India Act, 1919
1.     This act is also known as Montague Chelmsford Reforms.
2.     The idea of Responsible Government was stressed.
3.     Office of the High Commissioner of India was created in London.
4.     Legislature became ‘bicameral’ for the first time. Communal representation was extended. Secretary of State for India was to be paid from British Revenue.
5.     Diarchy was introduced in Provinces by dividing subjects of administration between the centre and the state.

Govt of India Act, 1935
1.     It provided an All India Federation.
2.     Diarchy was introduced at centre.
3.     Responsible governments were set up in States under Prime or Chief Ministers elected by the Legislatures.
4.     Governor was given special responsibilities.
5.     Three(3) fold division of  powers was made i.e, Federal, Provincial and Concurrent Lists.
6.     Residuary powers were to be vested with Governor General.
7.     Anglo-Indians, Minorities, Europeans were given provisions in the Legislative Councils.
8.     A Federal Court was constituted with a Chief Justice and 10 other Judges . This was setup in 1937.

Indian Independence Act, 1947
1.     This act did not lay down any provision for the administration of India…..but, only stated that from the ‘Appointed Date i.e., 15th August, 1947.
2.     There should be two independent dominions to be known as ‘India’ and ‘Pakistan’.
3.     Each dominion has the power to frame its own constitution and repeal any Act of British Parliament.